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Cyanobacteria Resources

For over 20 years WaterRA has worked with our expert members in research and industry and developed a robust portfolio of research into cyanobacteria. We have compiled a list of our most significant findings, and research from collaborative international organisations, which serve as the foundational knowledge from which we can achieve algal innovation.

WaterRA Cyanobacteria Research

Completed projects, final reports, factsheets and tools available:

#1138 | Protocols for Algal Bloom Management - technology performance & optimisation assessments

#1125 | Determining the cost of algal blooms to the Australian Water Industry

#1123 | Developing guidance for Assessment and Evaluation of Harmful Algal Blooms, and Implementation of Control Strategies in Source Water (WRF Project 4912)



#1110 | Benthic Cyanobacteria:
an aesthetic and toxic risk to be

Factsheet Aug 2020 | Testing
Sodium Percarbonate
(producing H
2O2) as an
algaecide for control of

Factsheet Dec 2019 | Recent
Australian research on
cyanobacteria with implications
for risk management within the
water industry


#1059 | Bad tastes, odours and toxins in our drinking water reservoirs:are  benthic cyanobacteria the culprits? 

#1078 | Development of tools for the assessment and management of aesthetic and health risks associated with cyanobacteria

#1073 | Management of treatment sludge impacted by cyanbacteria

#1066 | On-line monitoring of cyanobacteria to predict coagulant doses and powdered activated carbon application in water treatment

#1050 | Comprehensive Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on Reservoir Quality in a range of Climatic Regions

#1043 | A rapid, reliable and effective tool for assessing toxic 'algal' blooms in Vic water supplies - MT-PCR

#1033 | Optimising conventional treatment for the removal of cyanobacteria and their toxins

#1031 | Ultrasound for the control of cyanbacteria

#1022 | CyanoSurvey: A national update on toxic cyanobacteria and their distribution

#1021 | Biological Filtration for the treatment of cyanobacterial metabolites

Cyanobacteria Impact study

Blue-green Algae (cyanobacteria): a guide

#1003 | Evaluation of integrated membranes for taste and odor and toxin control


Most popular CRC WQT reports

Management Strategies for Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae): a Guide for Water Utilities - RR 74

Tastes and Odours in Reservoirs - RR 73

Optimisation of Adsorption Processes: Stage II - RR 43

BMAA in potable waters: an international assessment of exposure levels - RR 65

Artificial mixing for destratification and control of cyanobacterial growth in reserviors -RR 59

Practical Guide to Reservoir Management -RR 67


GWRC / Water Research Foundation reports

Cyanotoxin Guides for Water Utility Managers # 4548

Managing Cyanotoxins - A State of the Science (2016) 

Management of Treatment Sludge Impacted by Cyanobacteria # 4523

GWRC - International Guidance Manual for the management of toxic cyanobacteria


All cyanobacteria-related CRC WQT / WQRA research project reports

RR 1: Determination of Cyanobacterial Microcystins and Nodularin by a Colorimetric Protein Phosphatase lnhibition Assay using Phosvitin as Substrate (Jun 1999)

RR 2: Evaluation of Potential Matrix lnterferences in Phosphatase lnhibition Assays used for determining Cyanobacterial Hepatotoxins (Apr 2000)

RR 6: Genetics of Microcystis Toxicity - ldentification of the Genetic Pathway for Microcystin production in Microcystis aeruginosa  (Jul 2000)

RR 8: Development of Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Analyses for PSPs and Microcystins (Nov 2001)

RR 10: Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Peptide Hepatotoxins (Microcystins) (Dec 2001)

RR 11: A Guide to Hazard ldentification & Risk Assessment for Drinking Water Supplies (Apr 2004)

RR 13:Oral Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin: NOAEL Determination in Male Swiss Albino Mice (Jul 2002)

RR 16:Optimisation of Adsorption Processes (Jul 2002)

RR 25:Acute Skin Irritant Effects of Blue-Green Algae in Healthy Volunteers (2006)

RR 27: Development of an ELISA for Microcystins (Jun 2006)

RR 31: Application of an lmage Analysis System to Enumerate and Measure Cyanobacteria (Mar 2007)

RR 32: Regulation of Cylindrospermopsin Production by the Cyanobacterium C. raciborskii (Mar 2007)

RR 43: Optimisation of adsorption processes: Stage ll (2009)

RR 59: Artificial mixing for destratification and control of cyanobacterial growth in reservoirs (Sept 2008)

RR 60: Screening Assays for Water-borne Toxicants (Jul 2008)

RR 6I: Cylindrospermopsin Mechanisms of Toxicity and Genotoxicity (Jul 2008)

RR 64: Biological Filtration Processes for the Removal of Algal Metabolites (Aug 2008)

RR 66: Optimisation of Cylindrospermopsin Toxicity Assay (Jan 2008)

RR 67: A Practical Guide to Reservoir Management (May 2009)

RR 73: Taste and Odours in Reservoirs (Mar 2010)

RR 74: Management Strategies for Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae): a Guide for Water Utilities (Jun 2010)


CRC WQT Occasional Papers relating to cyanobacteria

Occasional Paper 2: Priorities for Algal Research in Australia (Mar 1998)

Occasional Paper 4: Blue-Green Algae: Their Significance and Management within Water Supplies (Feb 2002)

Occasional Paper 9: Biological Filtration, Ozone and Activated Carbon (Nov 2003)

Abstracts for 7th Australian and New Zealand Cyanobacteria Workshop

Tapas Biswas

Alex Held

Alicja Makarewicz

Anusuya Willis

Azadeh Golshan

Bojan Tamburic

Daniel Nebauer

Emma Sawade

Evangelos Romas

Florence Choo 1

Florence Choo 2

Glenn McGregor

Jin Zhu

Jonathon Puddick

Kelly Newton

Kyriakos Kandris

Mitrovic, Kobayashi, Roelke

Mohammad Hassan Roelkwe

Paul Wright, Sendall & McGregor

Polly Barrowman

Rafael Paulino

Sara Imran Khan

Shuang Liu

Simon Tannock

Vijay Dhamale

Xiaoran Chu

D2K & Jarvis Hunt

Nick Crosbie

Alex Held


External Resources

State agencies, particularly those with responsibility for or oversight of water or health will publish notices and factsheets relevant to their jurisdiction. If you are seeking information about a specific region or location, a state agency may be able to assist.

NSW DPI - Water

NSW Health

Victoria DELWP

Victoria Department of Health



Oral Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin

July 2002 

The cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) producing cylindrospermopsin are commonly found in drinking water sources in Australia.

Australian researchers were early leaders in research worldwide into the toxic species 
Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and the toxin cylindrospermopsin.